On the Concept of Time

How the keeping of time was developed throughout history and how to define it


By Steve Humphrey
Illustration by Andrea Hutchinson


Last winter, I taught a course at the University of California, Santa Barbara, on the philosophy and physics of time; an extremely popular class which I have taught many times. I thought I would share some of the complexities inherent in discussions of time, one of the most perplexing issues in both philosophy and physics. There are numerous books and articles written over the last several decades that explore both our concept and experience of time, and the way time functions in contemporary physics. No clear consensus has been reached.

St. Augustine (354 AD – 430 AD) said “What then is time? If no one asks me, I know what it is. If I wish to explain it to him who asks, I do not know.” This sums up the position of most of us. We think we know all about time, and we use temporal language, look at clocks, worry about having too little, or too much, but we are hard-pressed to describe exactly what it is we think we know so much about. But before we get into the mystery, let us do some history.

It is not clear when people first started thinking about time, but it must have been when they noticed the cyclic nature of their experiences. The sun comes up, the sun goes down. Days pass, seasons change, the phases of the moon go through regular cycles, the patterns of the years repeat themselves. Early humans might have talked in terms of suns and moons, as in “We will meet when three suns have risen,” or “I remember what happened two moons ago.” As people became more sophisticated and began studying the heavens, they noticed the cyclical nature of the rotation of the constellations. The first calendars were developed over three thousand years ago, incorporating astronomical observations of regular phenomena. Many civilizations developed calendars, and most had to confront a particular problem, which is that a year does not contain exactly twelve full moons, nor does it contain exactly 365 days. After several centuries, the New Year would fall in the middle of summer, rather than in the winter. This was fixed by adopting the Julian calendar, which added a day every four years, and further modified by the Gregorian calendar, which adds a day every four hundred years. For example, 1700, 1800 and 1900 were not leap years on the Gregorian calendar, while 2000 was.

So, the first attempts at timekeeping involved dividing up the year into regular intervals. But what about the day? How can we know “what time it is?” The first clocks were probably sundials, where the shadow of the gnomon falls on a number on a plate. It was obvious that the sun was visible for a longer period on some days than others. The earliest clocks were water and sand clocks, which involved a container filled with water or sand emptying out a small hole. In the Roman courts, lawyers were limited in the time they could use to plead a case by the amount of water leaking out of a bucket. Records show lawyers pleading for “more water.” Notice, here, exactly what is being measured. It isn’t time, but changes in the volume of water or sand, or the movement of the sun.

In the late 16th century, Galileo Galilei noticed the swaying of a suspended lamp in the Cathedral in Pisa, and, using his pulse, determined that the period of the swinging lamp was constant, i.e., a pendulum is isochronous, meaning each period is of the same length of time. Ironically, later, doctors began using pendulum clocks to measure the pulses of their patients. He went on to invent the first pendulum clock, and soon every town in Europe had a clock tower containing a pendulum clock. But before long, civic leaders and government officials had to confront two problems involving timekeeping. The first was the problem of synchronizing different clocks to make sense of train schedules. If the clock in every town was set according to when the sun was directly overhead at noon, then since towns could be far apart, there would be disagreement about exactly when noon occurred. This creates havoc with train schedules. So, a particular clock, located in Greenwich, England, was chosen as displaying the “correct” time, and all other clocks were synchronized with it. In towns far east or west of Greenwich, the sun would not be directly overhead at noon. This is the origin of time zones.

The second puzzle had to do with navigation at sea. Finding one’s latitude in a featureless sea is fairly easy, and early charts showed safe routes across the oceans that stuck to one or another latitude. But how to determine how far east or west a ship has sailed? The British Parliament offered a cash prize of £20,000, worth about $3.17 million in today’s dollars, to anyone who could solve the so-called “problem of longitude.” Many astronomers of the day were convinced that the solution lied in the behavior of various celestial objects, including the moons of Jupiter. But one man, John Harrison, realized that if one had an accurate timepiece aboard ship, one could compare noon at sea with noon as measured in Greenwich, and calculate just how far west one had come. A huge problem arose: a pendulum clock would not work, because of the roughness of the sea. The pendulum would be bounced around to such a degree that accuracy would be lost. Harrison’s difficulty was in producing a clock that was not affected by variations in temperature, pressure or humidity, and remained accurate over long time intervals, resisted corrosion in salt air and was able to function on board a constantly-moving ship. After several prototypes, he was finally successful. His early “chronometers” are on display in the Naval Museum in Greenwich, England. I have visited this exhibit many times, and today there is still a large ball that descends a flagpole on the roof of the Naval Museum at precisely 11 a.m., which serves as a signal to ships in the Thames to synchronize their chronometers. To learn more about this fascinating period of history, one should read Dava Sobel’s “Longitude.”

In next month’s issue, I will introduce some of the puzzles and conundrums lurking in our conception of time. We will see that it is not what it appears to be.

Steve Humphrey has a Ph.D in the history and philosophy of science, with a specialty in philosophy of physics. He teaches courses in these subjects at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and has taught them at the University of Louisville.

Milk Bread for the Soul

By Liz Gastiger and Kevin


With all of us home more, our indoor surroundings will inevitably change as a way to attempt control while a world of chaos is occurring outside. I’ll tell Kevin we need to get rid of that carpet in the bedroom, and suddenly, we’re heaving out a large, old carpet. Furniture also gets moved around, often in search of the “perfect spot.” There is an old joke that goes, “I thought I won the discussion on how to rearrange our furniture, but when I got home, the tables were turned.” This is a sentiment I can relate to. Kevin will ask me why we need to move our furniture and says, “I love our furniture the way it is. My recliner and I go way back.” But for some reason, I can’t stop.

When spending an ample amount of time at home and we need inner peace in a hurry, comfort food has been helpful. Milk Bread is one such food I will make that pleases everyone in our household. It is often found in Asian bakeries, such as Japanese, Chinese and Korean recipes. When it is a good recipe, Milk Bread warms everyone’s hearts who have been stuck at home during coronavirus or otherwise. As we eat our warm Milk Bread and taste the delightful flavor, Kevin will say to me, “Honey I’m not worthy, you deserve butter.” I smile and laugh, and for that moment, all feels right in the world again.

Mom’s A-1 Special Bread

2 cups scalded milk
4 tablespoons sugar
4 teaspoons salt
5 tablespoons shortening
6 cups all purpose flour (approx)
2 cups cold water
½ cup warm water
2 yeast packets dissolved

Combine milk, sugar, salt and shortening in a large bowl. Add cold water. Mix warm water with yeast packets and add to mixture. Stir in enough flour (approximately 5 cups) to make a soft dough. Knead on a floured surface until satiny and no longer sticky. Let it rise, knock it down, let rise again, then shape it into buns or a loaf of bread placed in a buttered loaf pan. Bake at 350 degrees for about 40 minutes. 

Creating Safe Water One Step at a Time

How WaterStep is providing safe water solutions and making an impact worldwide


By Liz Bingham
Photos provided by WaterStep


Since 1995 and headquartered in Louisville, KY, WaterStep has been providing safe water solutions for people in developing countries worldwide. Through in-person and now virtual training, easy-to-build safe water products, shoe drives and health education, WaterStep is able to help the 748 million people worldwide who live daily without access to safe water. This year marks the 25th anniversary of WaterStep and we had the opportunity to speak with the Founder & CEO, Mark Hogg, to hear his story about how WaterStep originated, the impact it is having on the world and how others can help.

Founder & CEO, Mark Hogg.

What is the evolution story of WaterStep? Do you have a personal connection to the need for safe water?

“I had an experience in college during the summer of 1983 on a mission trip to Burkina Faso, West Africa. My job was to build a dam so small a lake would hold three times more water. I worked with a group of African nationals and none of us really knew what we were doing. We had a little bit of instruction and worked by hand with concrete, big rocks, rebar and dirt. I saw people drinking horrific water that contained the feces of animals. They would get sick, sometimes they would die, even children would die. This was my initial angst with the need for safe water, which is the greatest problem in the world. “That experience stayed with me like a growing boil that kept festering until it was like every cell of my being was trying to figure out why people in remote areas can’t take care of their own water sanitation and health needs.

“WaterStep was a burning within me and I was just waiting on God to hone me with other life experiences so I could better recognize opportunities that ordinary people could use to create safe water, sanitation and health solutions.

“I often get asked, ‘When did this start?’ For me, it started 12 years before the organization was founded in 1995 because I needed to solve this initial problem that I couldn’t understand and had to resolve. It became a fever within me to be ready for opportunities that I don’t think I could have recognized before then. So for me, it was a face to face experience of this horrible problem impacting a culture that I was working in and nobody could do anything about it.

“I remember leaving and thinking, well the dam is finished and they’re going to have access to more water during the rainy season, but they’re still going to get sick and that’s really the essence of the issue. I asked myself, ‘How can these people keep themselves from getting sick from the water?’”

How do shoes tie into the equation and how are funds generated from donated shoes?

“This gentleman we met from St. Louis went to Africa and needed funds to drill a well. His friend said they could raise money through shoes by exporting and selling them and ended up making more than they initially needed. Also, through the exporter line, the shoes eventually get to a group of people they generate income for, which makes their community better and then we use the money that the exporter pays us to do water projects. The shoes provide 20% plus of our budget now.

“There was a woman who had cancer and said she wanted to get 25,000 shoes before she died because she knew she could impact lives with just a pair of shoes. Over time, the shoes have become a part of our identity that we never expected and it’s a great entry point for kids. My granddaughter got in my truck one day and was so excited to collect shoes for WaterStep because she knew she could save lives doing that.”

Tell me about the BleachMaker and how it was developed.

“We have a mantra at WaterStep to do the next right thing. So we were contacted by some people who were working in Liberia during an Ebola outbreak and we had an opportunity to work on the largest hospital ship for several years called the USNS Comfort. We met a group of people from Project Hope who go all over the world during disasters and they were at this Ebola crisis location and asked us if our chlorine generator that sanitizes water could also generate a disinfectant strong enough for Ebola.

“We took it upon ourselves to come up with a tool that would cure Ebola even and ended up creating the BleachMaker. It took about 14 months and it’s the size of a curling iron that makes disinfectant faster, more efficient, stronger and easier than anything in the world.

“When the Ebola crisis happened in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a doctor took 70 or more BleachMakers, and along with a group of other doctors, came up with a way to use it. The Congo’s Minister of Health said that, because of these doctors and their strategy using the BleachMaker, the Ebola virus was able to be abated at that time.”

This year marks the 25th anniversary of WaterStep. What does this mean to you?

“One of the things I love about WaterStep is, somehow, we’ve had the ability to be agile and to look at problems as opportunities to be solved and learned about. When I look back on 25 years, it’s a nice surprise to be able to be where we are and look at how we’ve continued to make it through and have such an incredible group of people we call our WaterStep Nation.

“People often have these experiences in their lives and just kind of let them pass. I think when we’re able to get to a point of knowing that any experience any day could be an extraordinary day is when extraordinary things happen. It’s just about how we approach it and not wanting to waste anything.

“I think about and relive that experience in 1983 every day and how I didn’t want to waste that experience. There are so many things that are happening in our ordinary day-to-day life and I want to recognize those things and not waste them. They could be critical for me down the line, whether it’s me learning a lesson or making a connection.

“I especially love finding things I can connect young people with. Being able to be a connector is knowing we can’t waste anything because that thing might have a great connection, but if I don’t recognize the thing, I won’t find the connection.

“We took a group of young people to Kenya, Brazil and Costa Rica when I got a call from a guy I didn’t know who told me that the water was bad in Kenya and then said, ‘Well you can do something about it.’ I’ll never forget how this thing happened physiologically in my body — a collision of molecules and cells and bones and blood — this shockwave went through me. I felt like God was saying, ‘Okay, here’s the moment. You don’t want to miss this.’ The man on the phone said that he could show me a simple process that takes salt, water and a car battery to make safe water. So for me, I realized anyone on the planet could make this as long as they had those things.”

What’s the best way for the Louisville community to get involved and help?

“We are trying to put networks of people together who can help us sell our equipment to fund the organization in its future and thus impact lives around the world.

“We introduced the WaterOnWheels cart last August that can push and pull water with pumps. It can make five gallons of bleach an hour. It’s a one-stop-shop for safe water and health to use in a disaster for emergency workers or those in need.

“Shoe drives are also super easy and fun. The simple thing is to go online and donate or come on a tour. We give tours once a month in person or virtually, so visitors can see the space I call ‘collision space,’ where people exchange ideas, make connections and are then able to help all sorts of people in need. You get to see where we manufacture our equipment, where shoes are processed and people are trained. We train between 400-500 people a year, both physically and virtually.

“Tell our stories. The more stories we get out there nationally and internationally, the more people can realize that they can do great things. Because we’re just ordinary folks ourselves who’ve accomplished all of this.”

Has COVID-19 affected the organization’s initiatives in any way?

“I never imagined going through COVID-19. I was hoping we could figure out how to just tread water. I remember thinking, can we get through this and be okay? But we were able to get through it and also excel in our abilities to help other people locally, regionally and nationally. We have come out learning so much, growing so much and better than we were going in.”

What are your future goals for the organization?

“What comes to me as a founder is, everybody who starts something hopes that it goes on forever.

“Everything is going virtual. We don’t need to travel as much anymore because we developed a training outfit to train from our facility, and we travel some, but we don’t depend on travel as a major part of our outreach because we can teach everything online.

“We received a grant to create a new video training podcast where we use equipment to teach water safety and overall water education remotely. It will give us the opportunity to work with other water organizations all over the world to bring their best practices and information on a format that could be on anyone’s phone on the planet. I hope this will fill the next 25 years if possible.

“Even during this time, it reminds me that we need to make sure we’re learning, educating ourselves on culture, diversity and the wondrous nets of the differences around us. I’m so thankful and honored that we work with so many different people in so many different places around the world. I’m constantly realizing how important it is that I recognize how special people are and that people want to do great things to impact the world. There’s always so much more we can do together.”

A Rejection of a Singular Reality through Art


“Nostalgia” by J. Cletus Wilcox.

Quappi Projects introduces new art exhibition “A Sort of River of Passing Events”


By Sarah Levitch
Photos by Kathryn Harrington


Q” is the first thing I see when searching for the entrance to Quappi Projects, just a singular letter that hangs over the entrance to an alleyway in NuLu. “I think this is it!” I remark to my mom who has accompanied me on my trip to view the new exhibit at Quappi Projects, “A Sort of River of Passing Events.” I slowly make my way down the alley and towards the glass doors, a small bird hopping along in front of my feet like an usher leading me to a seat. With a sort of ambiguous entrance, Quappi Projects hides away in a possible attempt to signal towards the veil of reality. Aiming to share “art reflective of the zeitgeist,” I’m not surprised that the contemporary art on display in John Brooks’ gallery brings into question our perceptions of truth, memory and relation, as much of the world nests in a state of evaluation of our past, present and future. How does the flowing of time alter our understanding of the past? Why do we accept the reality and history we are taught as true? If we linger in a space of curiosity, how can we expand our collective knowledge, as well as discover new forms of relating to one another?

“Two Valentines” by Kiah Celeste.

If there’s one thing to know before entering this hidden gem, it’s to keep your eyes and mind open. As humans, we have a natural tendency to set expectations and preconceived ideas of anything and everything. The art of Kiah Celeste, Dominic Guarnaschelli and J. Cletus Wilcox on display and for sale at Quappi Projects calls upon the viewer to not only look closely, but also to leave our previous assumptions in the alleyway and challenge the way we perceive and think about art. John Brooks writes in a description of the exhibition, “These artists’ disparate practices converge around ideas related to aesthetics, materiality, abstraction, process and ambiguity of meaning.” 

“Votive” by Dominic Guarnaschelli.

The exhibition exudes underwhelming energy in the vast space and a minimal number of pieces, an energy which provides room for the mind to explore and change. Named after a quote from Roman Emperor and Stoic Philosopher, Marcus Aurelius (121-180 CE), the exhibition reminds the viewer that life rests in a constant state of flux. “Time is a sort of river of passing events, and strong is its current; no sooner is a thing brought to sight than it is swept by and another takes its place, and this too will be swept away.” If the world around us continually changes, then how can we challenge our constructions of reality to change with the tide? Perhaps we must remind ourselves as well that this too shall pass and to, hopefully, learn and grow from our mistakes.

“Ethics” by Dominic Guarnaschelli.

After a brief discourse with Brooks upon entry, I was drawn to my left where Guarnaschelli’s piece Ethics hangs. Employing “archaic book covers with the titles and all references removed, alluding to the changeability of facts and certain kinds of knowledge,” I wonder what I do not see. What book cover is this supposed to be? Through a refusal to reveal his source, Guarnaschelli provokes curiosity, reminding me that in life we should not blindly accept what we’re told or given. Anything can be molded or re-shaped, which is why we must insist upon questioning all that we encounter.

“Heart Sutra” by J. Cletus Wilcox.

My thoughts led me to a black painting. I read in the description, J. Cletus Wilcox, Heart Sutra, “references a Buddhist sutra: Form is empty, emptiness is form. After careful study, what at first may seem just a void, it reveals itself to be shimmering and full of small gifts.” Intrigued by the blackness, I get closer. Indeed, the black serves as a sort of cloak to a meticulously crafted collage. Upon later research of the Buddhist sutra, I discovered that to be empty means to be full. We may look at a cup without water and say it’s empty, yet the cup is full of air; therefore, the cup is only empty of something, not everything. The deceivingly empty, black canvas obscures a process, a story and a fullness of thought.

“Gall Blass” by Kiah Celeste.

On the floor rests three sculptures, but the one I cannot look away from is Gall Blass by Kiah Celeste. Perhaps a play on the words ‘glass’ and ‘ball,’ the piece calls upon the viewer to come down to its level. “Compromised of painterly and subtly beautiful discarded objects, each work is made stable through a balancing act, resulting in combinations that feel destined for each other and possess a palpable and poetic tension.” The unexpected equilibrium Celeste constructs with the croquet balls and glass reflects the delicate balance of society and reveals the repurposed potential of an object once thrown-away.

“Spring Themes” by Kiah Celeste.

As my mom grows impatient, ready for lunch, we wave goodbye to Brooks. Emerging from the alley, the small bird hops at my feet again. Re-reading the Aurelius quote evokes another quote by Greek Philosopher Heraclitus: “No man ever steps into the same river twice, for it’s not the same river and he’s not the same man.” As the river of time flows, change awaits at every passing second and possibility lingers in the waves of emptiness. Rejecting the concept of a singular reality, the art pieces in “A Sort of River of Passing Events” change with the tide. They suggest there is always more than meets the eye and encourage all who come into contact with them to perpetually shift their perspective and question all they encounter.

For more information:
827 E Market St. / 502.295.7118

KMAC Museum Reopens June 19

By Julia Baldyga, Hadley, c.1974-75 oil pastel on paper 33 ¼” 17 ¼” Collection of the artist

Now is the time to support your local nonprofits and arts organizations

By Elizabeth Scinta
Photo provided by KMAC Museum

KMAC Museum, known for exhibiting local, regional and global artists’ work who use a variety of materials including pen and ink drawing, ceramics, woodworking, painting, photography, glassmaking, film, video and found objects, will be reopening and ready for visitors on June 19. As a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization, KMAC’s mission is to inform and resonate personal, historical, social and political issues to its patrons and beyond. Located in Downtown Louisville at 715 W. Main St., the museum sits on historic Museum Row, making it an ideal place to visit for those who want to make a day of visiting Louisville’s multiple downtown museums all within walking distance from one another. Due to closures from COVID-19, it is now more important than ever to support our local museums and nonprofit organizations. 

There are two new exhibits and installations in the museum. The first exhibit, “Where Paradise Lay: Art and Southern Sanctuary,” will be displayed until November 8, 2020. This exhibit is inspired by the book “Walks to the Paradise Garden” by the poet and founder of the Jargon Society Jonathan Williams. It takes KMAC’s legacy of exhibiting work from those who are, as Williams writes, “directly involved with making a paradise for themselves in the front yard, the back garden, the parlor, the sun porch, the basement.” “Where Paradise Lay” will explain how several artists have shaped America’s collective visual identity.

The second exhibit, Julie Baldyga’s “Heavenly People,” will be on display until November 8, 2020. Julie Baldyga, a Louisville native, creates an ongoing set of human figures called Heavenly People made from the inside out with materials like plastic bags, wire and other substitutions to make up the organs, bones and anatomical features. The exhibit will feature a selection of these figures combined with other work, mainly oil pastel, from Baldyga’s past created daily at StudioWorks in Louisville. This exhibit coincides with the release of her book, “In Heaven Everyone Will Shake Your Hands: The Art of Julie Baldyga.”       

A new mural by Jaylin Stewart, a Louisville artist, is also displayed in the lobby of the KMAC Museum. Jaylin Stewart is an art teacher for youth in the Louisville area who focuses on building compassion and confidence through art. The mural will mirror American’s time during the COVID-19 outbreak and life in 2020.

There is also a new installation, “Words Not Boards,” on the front windows featuring the work of author and poet Hannah L. Drake. Drake’s poem “Dawn” is the base for the window installation. Drake focuses on politics, feminism and race in her books, poetry and blog. She believes change happens in the uncomfortable spaces. “My sole purpose in writing and speaking is not that I entertain you,” says Drake. “I am trying to shake a nation.” 

KMAC has implemented new policies for guests to keep everyone safe during their visit:

Admission to the museum is $6 for adults and $5 for seniors (65+) and military members. Children under 18, students with a university ID and KMAC members have free admission.

  • Face masks are required during your visit. 
  • Use hand sanitizer upon arrival at the museum and take advantage of the hand sanitation stations positioned throughout the museum. 
  • One member from each party must provide an email or phone number should they need to be contacted for contact tracing purposes. Public health officials will use this information if your visit coincides with someone who later tests positive for COVID-19.

New KMAC Shop Hours:
​10 a.m.-4 p.m. Wednesday through Saturday
Closed Sunday, Monday and Tuesday

Location Information:
KMAC Museum
715 W. Main St.



An Interview with Jecorey Arthur

Jecorey Arthur | Photo by Brizzy Rose and Emma

We recently asked local activist, musician, award-winning teacher, father and Democratic candidate for Louisville Metro Council District 4, Jecorey Arthur, to comment on the recent protests against police brutality and in support of the Black Lives Matter movement. Arthur also shared ways our community can support the movement. 

On who he is and who he wants to be.
My parents and 13 siblings call me Corey. I was born, raised and am still living in the West End of Louisville. I’m originally from the Parkland neighborhood where Muhammad Ali was born and raised, but now I live in Russell. My 2-and-a-half-year-old son calls me “Dada.” I’m also known as 1200 when I’m recording, composing and performing music. I’ve performed with the Louisville Orchestra and dozens of orchestras around the country as a hip-hop artist and a classical musician. I’m known to my little students as Mr. Arthur and my big students as Professor Arthur at Simmons College of Kentucky, our state’s only private historically black college as well as the first college to have higher education for black Kentuckians. And hopefully, I’ll be known as Councilman Arthur as I am campaigning for Metro Council District 4 of Louisville.   

On the protests.
A man that I share a birthday with by the name of Malcolm X made a comment after John F. Kennedy was assassinated that eventually led to his own death. Malcolm X said that chickens always come home to roost. What he meant is that violence begets violence. This city, our country, has been violent towards black people, specifically black American descendants of slavery, for 401+ years, so we see the backlash taking place because we’ve been victimized by it for so long. I don’t believe we need to go to war with the police, the government, or white people, that would be a bloodbath. That would be suicide because we are only 13% of this country’s population. We only have 2.6% of this country’s wealth. Black men and women account for 37% of incarcerations. That 13% of the population is almost wiped out because we’re incarcerated at higher rates than any other race, so we would never win in that position. What’s important is that we use our minds, our allies and our accomplices of people who are willing to make justice happen to get us out of this situation. Mayor Fischer asked me on Sunday, “Our city is on fire, and who’s going to put it out?” What so many people don’t realize about these fires, figuratively, is that we didn’t start them. It’s important that whoever starts them puts them out. In this case, it would be Mayor Fischer, Governor Beshear and our law enforcement. 

On what needs to change.
In front of me, I have the demands for Breonna Taylor’s case from her family and the legal team. These demands have changed quite a bit, because some of our demands have been met, such as releasing the 911 call and getting Kenneth Walker’s, the boyfriend who defended her, charges dropped. These demands include 1. Demand the Mayor and City Council address the use of force by the Louisville Metro Police Department. 2. Fire and revoke the pensions of the officers who murdered Breonna Taylor. Arrest, charge and convict them for this crime. 3. Provide all necessary information to a local, independent civilian community police accountability council. 4. Create policy for transparent investigation process due to law enforcement misconduct. 5. Eliminate no-knock warrants. 

Some of these are specific to Breonna, but some of them are systematically going to change the future. The police are public servants. They are paid for by public dollars, but when we have a situation that they’re called into question on, they want to have private investigations. That’s not how that works. Another systematic change would be this police accountability council. When we have that in place, shootings that happen or when we need to review the law, these councils can ensure we’re putting laws in place that are going to protect and serve citizens that the police themselves are supposed to protect and serve. 

On how we can better educate ourselves.
Here in Louisville, Kentucky, everyone needs to read Two Centuries of Black Louisville. It was co-authored by three essential black people, and that book is by far the most extensive history of how Louisville came to be. Even though it was published in 2011, the book draws so many parallels to what we’re going through right now, not only with COVID-19, but with police genocide and our income and equality,  and our racial wealth gap. 

On how the Louisville community can support the BLM movement.
One, white people have to listen. Listening is key. We have two ears and one mouth for a reason. Two, after you listen, you have to organize, mobilize and strategize, because the education piece is only a portion of what needs to take place. You can know plenty, but if you don’t do anything, it’s wasted energy and potential. 

The black Kroger, by that I mean the only full-service grocery store in the black community, was shut down June 1. Our food supply was cut off. When that happened, we had that listening and organizing going on, and a coalition of mostly black nonprofits raised over $30,000 to get food to people. That’s a prime example of what it takes to listen and to lead. V


Kentucky to the World Wants to Share Your Story

By Sarah Levitch
Video Provided by Kentucky to the World

As the world remains in a state of flux, adapting to the everyday situations and questions presented by COVID-19, Kentucky stands tall as a model for excellence and greatness. Faced with challenges unlike ever before, the people of Kentucky have not only broken stereotypes but also proven to the nation that we take care of our communities, no matter what. Giving a platform and opportunity to further display these acts of compassion, Kentucky to the World wants to hear your story. As a non-profit organization, Kentucky to the World creates multi-media productions that find and elevate stories of excellence. Whether from individuals, organizations or communities, these stories work together to construct a new narrative for Kentucky on the world stage that isn’t beholden to old stereotypes. We spoke with Taylor Cochran, creative consultant, and Melissa Zoeller, public relations and marketing consultant, about Kentucky to the World’s mission and their upcoming video series. 


How have the operations of Kentucky to the World shifted in reaction to the COVID-19 pandemic?
Taylor: Luckily before all of this happened, we planned to take a step back as an organization and work on brand awareness. When the organization started, it was primarily a conversation and lecture series, and late last year we pivoted to be a more holistic storytelling organization. In modern times, a huge piece of that would’ve been our digital presence, so we began migrating our website from a brochure of the organization to long-form blogs written by our staff writer Michael Phillips. All of them have an illustrated component by our staff illustrator, archivist and researcher August Northcut. A lot of them also have video or photo components produced by Tommy Johns. Instead of chasing headlines, our organization is chasing archives. The biggest difference during COVID-19 has been rethinking how we continue with the brand equity we have while trying to do something innovative and relevant. How do we add something productive rather than being a handout?

Melissa: Our focus stays around the fact that these are unique stories no one else is telling about individuals that have strong Kentucky ties. Whether it be that they grew up here, work here or discovered something here. Our main goal is to keep it centered around the fact that most people don’t realize how many things come out of Kentucky. 

Tell me about the video series you’re working on.
Taylor: Our Education & Strategy Consultant, David Thurmond, came up with this idea with his niece. They were thinking about how this quarantine experience has affected so many different people in so many different ways, and during all of it, Kentucky has made national headlines for really, really good reasons for one of the first times in a long time. As well, Cuomo gave this speech that really spoke to Thurmond about reimagining the future. So, we spent a couple of weeks watching the community to see how everyone was responding to figure out what questions we could ask people. What we came up with was, let’s give people the most non-specific prompt we can. Let’s be the archivist here. Give us your stories. What has been exceptional to you? Has it been your neighbor doing this? Is it something that you did? What are you seeing coming out of Kentucky that you would like to tell the world about?

How will you be collecting and sharing the videos?
Taylor: All social media except for twitter. We’re @kentuckytotheworld on Instagram and Facebook, so tag our profile and use #kentuckytotheworld and #teamkentucky. 

Melissa: Governor Andy Beshear has been sharing the #teamkentucky posts in his daily updates. What we want is for people to make a small video of how they’ve been affected by all this or what unique things they’ve seen. We’re going to compile all those together as a video series and montage. Some of our community partners are the Muhammad Ali Center, Frazier History Museum, Kentucky Center for the Performing Arts, Louisville Metro Parks Community Centers and Omni Louisville Hotel. We want to send this video montage out to them as well as the Governor’s office to share all these amazing things that people have done during the coronavirus pandemic. 

Taylor: There will be a companion blog about this project too. KTW’s Video Producer & Director, Tommy Johns, is curating a YouTube playlist for these videos. These videos are sort of flipping the script from looking at the greatness someone achieved to recognizing that greatness is already in Kentucky by listening to these stories. Kentuckians standing by each other is literally our state motto. We are in it for the commonwealth. 

How do you envision the final product?
Taylor: I don’t know if we’re putting a time limit on this, as much as there will be a natural time limit. At some point, submissions will become more relevant, or something will happen to add another storyline. We don’t really know what’s going to happen. We might release a few different montage videos rather than one big thing. 

Melissa: It’s very organic and open. What we said from the beginning was we’ll review every two weeks to see where we stand, just like we’re reviewing every two weeks in life. We’re in such a state of flux that we want to keep it going as long as individuals are doing these amazing things. 

The Princess Bride

Akris pants, $150; J. Dosi pearl and crystal embellished tunic with belt, $58; Faux pearl bracelet, $10, available at Sassy Fox Upscale Consignment. Maritza’s cathedral veil; Swarovski crystal chandelier earrings, available at The Bridal Suite of Louisville, prices upon request.

Photography: Andrea Hutchinson 
Styling: Liz Bingham
Styling Assistants: Sarah Levitch and Shirelle Williams
Makeup: Jace Face
Flowers: In Bloom Again and  Nanz & Kraft Florists
Model: Shantay Chandler
Location: Lincliffe


Justin Alexander mikado-bodice “Jillene” gown; Rose gold Swarovski crystal headband, earrings and necklace, available at The Bridal Suite of Louisville, prices upon request.

White blazer, $30; White lace top, $18; Trina Turk pants, $48, available at Sassy Fox Upscale Consignment. Custom designed horsehair veil by The Bridal Suite of Louisville; Richard Designs UK Swarovski crystal headband; Swarovski crystal braided belt; Swarovski crystal drop earrings, available at The Bridal Suite of Louisville, prices upon request.

St. John vintage knit and lace dress and matching jacket set, $175, available at Sassy Fox Upscale Consignment. Freshwater pearl headband; Swarovski crystal and freshwater pearl earrings, available at The Bridal Suite of Louisville, prices upon request. Bouquet provided by Nanz & Kraft Florists, price upon request.

A.L.C. dress, $72, available at Sassy Fox Upscale Consignment. Swarovski crystal necklace and earrings, available at The Bridal Suite of Louisville, prices upon request. Lace veil from the stylist’s personal collection. Bouquet provided by Nanz & Kraft Florists, price upon request.

Casablanca lace gown; Swarovski crystal and freshwater pearl headband; Swarovski crystal braided bracelet; Swarovski crystal earrings, available at The Bridal Suite of Louisville, prices upon request.

Casablanca Swarovski crystal beaded gown; Horse hair waltz length veil custom designed by The Bridal Suite of Louisville; Swarovski crystal drop earrings, available at The Bridal Suite of Louisville, prices upon request. Bouquet provided by In Bloom Again.

Lillian West ruched English net gown with floral 3D appliqués; Martiza’s cathedral lace veil; Concepçions rose gold, Swarovski crystal and freshwater pearl tiara; Swarovski crystal and rose gold vine drop earrings, available at The Bridal Suite of Louisville, prices upon request. Wildflower bouquet, available at In Bloom Again, price upon request.

Justin Alexander stretched crepe “JoJo” gown; Martiza’s veil; Concepçions celestial headband; Swarovski crystal drop earrings, available at The Bridal Suite of Louisville, prices upon request. Bouquet of orchids, peonies, hydrangeas, roses and tulips provided by Nanz & Kraft Florists, price upon request.

Lillian Lucille Henken Press 1924-2020

Lillian Lucille Henken Press, 95, born October 18, 1924 in Everett, Massachusetts, loving and beloved mother and grandmother, passed away Sunday, April 26, 2020 at Overlake Hospital in Bellevue, Washington. 

She is survived by her son, Lowell Press, daughter-in-law Sasha Press and grandchildren Logan Press and Hayden Press, all of Bellevue; and by her sister, Mildred Henken of Lexington, and her nieces, Karen Henken of San Diego and Donna Henken of New York. 

Her energetic, vivacious, caring spirit will always be with us, and her service to the community as a pioneer in education and mental health will live on in the hearts of those whose lives she touched.

Founding Director of the Kentucky Governor’s Scholars Program, Lillian moved with her husband, the late O. Leonard Press, to Lexington in 1952. Among her accomplishments she was the Founding President of the National Conference of Governor’s Schools, Program Director at WVLK, Executive Assistant to the Commissioner of Mental Health, Dale Farabee, Special Assistant to the Appalachian Regional Commission Co-Chair, Al Smith, Founding Chair of the Women’s Network and a trustee on the Centre College Board for 26 years. She received an honorary degree from Centre College and an honorary doctorate from the University of Kentucky. On the latter occasion, UK President, Dr. Eli Capilouto, said of her and her husband, “You bestowed upon the Commonwealth an abundance of goodness and talent that still lifts us all.” 

She leaves behind so many dear friends who meant the world to her. May she rest in peace at Lexington Cemetery with her husband, Len, and nearby their longtime friends, Connie and Dave Wilson. 

A memorial service will be held at a later date. 

In lieu of flowers, please consider a donation to Centre College in memory of Lil Press.

Letter from the Editor

Words cannot describe the overwhelming feeling of pride and joy sending the June issue, my first issue as Editor in Chief, to press has brought me. Not only is June my birthday month, and for those of you who know me know that I love birthdays, but more importantly, this issue is filled with hope. 

For the first time since COVID-19 changed all of our lives as we knew them, I feel a sense of hope for the future that’s being shown through all facets of our community and beyond that I hope you too will feel through the pages of our June issue. Josh Miller’s story about practicing social distancing while attempting to maintain his usual running routine is truly encouraging to know that people are still upholding their old routines and respecting new guidelines. Jeff Howard’s monthly column also sheds light on new ways we can exercise together under the “new normal” standards. The story I had the privilege to write, about the Community Foundation’s One Louisville: COVID-19 Response Fund, brought immense inspiration and gratitude for how our community has come together to help those in need and kept a positive outlook on what’s to come. I also had the opportunity to interview nine local artists who all pivoted their craft to making masks for local businesses, individuals and nationwide. Thanks to our two wonderful summer interns, Sarah Levitch and Shirelle Williams, we also have a story about how to imbibe responsibly during this new era of video socializing and one about the experience of surviving during the pandemic for five local businesses and individuals across an array of categories. You’ll even see this glimmer of hope in the facial expressions of our solo bride in our fashion editorial. 

I don’t want to give too much away, but what I hope this issue will provide for you, our loyal Voice readers, is a sense that everything is going to be okay. Everything might and probably will feel odd for quite a while, but if we all continue to work together and follow the guidelines instructed to us, we will get through this together. 

Sincerely yours,
Liz Bingham
Editor in Chief